Glossary

The vocabulary listed here consists of historical terms that can be found in the hand copies and protocol catalogues of Galerie Hugo Helbing as well as in contemporary literature. An exception is the term "Einlieferer," which is not mentioned in the catalogues. Persons who consign objects to an auction for the purpose of selling them at auction are referred to in the catalogues as "Beiträger," "Besitzer," "Teilnehmer," or even "Auftraggeber." However, persons who have submitted bidding orders are also referred to as "Auftraggeber". To avoid misunderstandings, the term "Einlieferer", which is common today, is used here.

à tout prix

instead of a limit price: lot shall be sold "at any price"

Anhaltspreis

see Schätzpreis

Aufgeld

sales commission, which a buyer must pay in addition to the hammer price, the amount of which is usually specified in the terms and conditions of the auction.

aufwerfen

first presentation of a lot with the naming of a prize

(Auktions-)Teilnehmer

see Einlieferer

ausbieten

see aufwerfen

außer Katalog Objekte

lots sold at auction but not listed in the printed catalogue

Beiträge

see  Liste der Personen, die Objekte eingeliefert haben

Besitzer

see Einlieferer

bestmöglichst

instead of a limit price: lot shall be sold at the highest bid

Einlieferer

person who consigns objects for the purpose of sale at auction

Ersteigerungsauftrag

written bid received in advance of the auction for a specific

Gebot

price offered for a lot during the auction

Hammerpreis

see Zuschlagpreis

Handexemplar

copy of the auction catalog annotated by employees of the auction house

Ho / Hö

see bestmöglichst

Höchstgebot

highest price bid for a lot during the auction

Käufer

person who bought a lot at auction

Kaufpreis

surcharge plus buyer‘s premium

Kommissionär

person who places bids on behalf of another person

Limit / Limitpreis

minimum price at which a lot may be sold by agreement between the owner and the auction house

Liste der Personen, die einen Ersteigerungsauftrag eingereicht haben

list of persons or companies who have submitted a (written) bidding order in advance of an auction to bid for a specific lot at a specific maximum price, usually arranged alphabetically.

Liste der Personen, die Objekte eingeliefert haben

list of persons or companies who consign objects for the purpose of sale at auction, usually arranged numerically.

Los

object/group of objects to be sold at auction

nach Ermessen

instead of a limit price: lot shall be sold at the discretion of the auction house

Nachlass

discount on the surcharge, which was usually given to art dealers and museums

Protokollkatalog

annotated copy of the auction catalogue documenting the results of an auction

Retour

unsold lot which has not reached the agreed limit price and/or which has not been knocked down

Schätzung / Schätzpreis

price at which a lot could be sold in the auction

Taxe / Taxpreis

see Schätzung

Zuschlag

issued by the management of the auction by a hammer blow if no further bid is made after the highest bid has been called three times

Zuschlagpreis

highest bid at which a lot is awarded